How Carpet is Made

Different methods of construction are used to create different types of carpet. Below is an explanation of the main types of carpet construction.

Tufted Carpet

Tufted CarpetOver 95% of the carpet manufactured in the United States is tufted. A tufting machine is essentially a huge sewing machine with hundreds of needles that insert loops of yarn into the primary backing. Yarn is fed from a creel, one tube of yarn for each needle, and threaded through the needles. The tufting machine is set up to produce level loop, multi-level loop, cut pile, and cut and loop pile structures. A tufting machine is like a big sewing machine, usually twelve feet wide. The tufting machine’s needles punch the yarn through the primary backing, which is fed into the machine from the rear. The looper forms the pile and determines the pile height. Loopers with a cutting knife attached are used to produce cut-pile or plush carpet. The carpet is manufactured “fuzzy side down”. A loop-pile machine does not have those knives, leaving the loops uncut.

Several hundred rows of stitches are carried out per minute. Thus, one tufting machine can produce several hundred square yards of carpets per day.

Woven – 3 types (Wilton, Axminster & Velvet)

Wilton is woven carpet made in variety of patterns and textures but with a limited number of colors in the patterns.

Axminster is a machine-woven carpet that features an enormous number of colors and colorful patterns.

Velvet carpet features a level surface or cut pile and is made of yarns that have very little twist

Woven carpet manufacturing was once the standard in the industry. Today’s production using the woven carpet manufacturing process is small as compared to tufting. For many designers and  buyers throughout the world, woven carpets such as axminster, wilton and velvet continue to be their carpet of choice.

During the woven carpet manufacturing process, the yarn is woven through or around vertical fibers known as warps, and then locked into place with horizontal strands known as wefts. A major difference with tufting is that with the tufted carpet manufacturing process the yarn is stitched through a backing and then locked into place with an adhesive.

Wilton Carpet ­

Wilton carpets are pile carpets whereby the pile is formed by inserting wires in the pile warps of the carpet. After the extraction of the wires, the pile is looped (in case straight wires have been used) or cut (in case cutting wires are used). Because the yarn is buried on the back and only lifted when a specific color is needed, it gives the Wilton product more body, resilience, and great quality. Because of massive yarn creels needed to service 216 and 252 pitch looms, the number of unique colors that can be used in a pattern are limited by the number of frames used to introduce colors. A 216 pitch loom usually weaves up to 3 unique colors. A 252 pitch loom can weave up to 5 unique colors.

Wilton Carpet

Some Wilton carpets are manufactured by what is known as the face ­to ­face method or sandwich weaving in which two carpets are woven simultaneously, and then the pile strands in the sandwich are slit apart to form two lengths of carpet.

Axminster Carpet

Axminster weaving has been traditionally used mostly for creating multicolored patterned carpets (8 to 12 colors), giving Axminster greater versatility in pattern design and color placement than any other carpet manufacturing process in the industry.

As the loom is operated, the yarn is trimmed and clamped into brackets with a gripper. Each tuft is then lowered and inserted into the carpet face. The tufts are placed between the warp threads and bound tightly by weft yarns. Because the weaving process individually cuts and places the yarn into the backing, a cut pile texture is the only option.

Axminster Carpet Weave

The tufts are U-­shaped, and are anchored at the bottom into the primary backing that is simultaneously woven. The backing may have a synthetic ­starch or latex finish applied to it.

A pair of thick weft cords give the Axminster a distinctive ribbed appearance. Axminster carpets will roll easily in the length or warp direction be are difficult to roll width wise.

Learn more about the carpet products offered at Kashian Bros »

Posted May 12, 2015
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